Both were satisfied if the other could not dominate Paraguayan affairs. The fines, expropriations, and confiscations of foreign-held property meant that the state quickly became the nation's largest landowner, eventually operating forty-five animal-breeding farms. Asunción became the center of a Spanish province that encompassed a large portion of central South America — it was dubbed La Provincia Gigante de Indias. Their rivals, López loyalists, established Club Unión with Cayo Miltos as president. Congress became his puppet, and the people abdicated their political rights, a situation enshrined in the 1844 Constitution, which placed all power in López's hands. In their reducciones Jesuits sponsored orchestras, musical ensembles and actors' troupes. Discontent with the Spanish monarchy was put aside because of the much bigger rivalry with the city of Buenos Aires. [5], "This Congress will not discuss whether it's the sodomite King (of Spain) or his weak son, our ruler. In a sign of the times, Franco practiced his Mussolini-style spellbinding oratory from a balcony. Given his limited resources and manpower, Irala could do little to check the raids of Portuguese marauders along his eastern borders. Nevertheless, by 1910 army commander Colonel Albino Jara felt strong enough to stage a coup against President Manuel Gondra. At the same time, Spain was using most of its wealth from the New World to import manufactured goods from the more industrialized countries of Europe, notably Britain. At the same time, Argentina and Brazil were not content to leave Paraguay with a truly free political system. [2], Irala ruled without further interruption until his death in 1556. [24], After learning about this ship, President Juan Antonio Escurra declared a state of siege on August 8. The Colorados helped Moríñigo crush the insurgency, but the man who saved Moríñigo's government during crucial battles was the commander of the General Brúgez Artillery Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Alfredo Stroessner. [2], The peace that had prevailed under Irala ended in 1542 when Charles V appointed Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, one of the most renowned conquistadors of his age, as governor of the province. By November 1810 the army reached the Paraná River near Apipé island, and there Belgrano took measures to benefit the natives that were living in missions. While maintaining a strong political and economic grip on the country, and despite all his shortcomings, Lopez worked towards strengthening Paraguay's independence. "The Stronato". After Garcia's murder by his Indian allies, news of the raid reached the Spanish explorers on the coast. Promising a national and social revolution, they occupied Asunción and brought Colonel Rafael Franco to power. Soldiers from the Blandengues regiments of San Nicolás and Santa Fe did join him en route, and later the junta sent reinforcements of another 200 soldiers. At present,[when?] Itaipú gave Paraguay's economy a new source of wealth. [31], On July 1, 2005, the United States reportedly deployed troops and aircraft to the large military airfield of Mariscal Estigarribia as part of a bid to extend control of strategic interests in the Latin American sphere, particularly in Bolivia. In addition, the Liberals, who still had influential support in the army, agitated constantly for Franco's overthrow. Paraguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811. Both ships met on August 11 near town of Pilar and very quickly Villa Rica was sunk, killing 28 government sailors. About 875 families received homesteads from the lands of the former seminary. Paraguay became an independent country on May 15, 1811. Factbook > Countries > Paraguay > Government. He allowed controversies and boundary disputes with Brazil and Argentina to smolder. Espinola failed in his mission and was quickly chased out of the province. Paraguay experienced a brief period of openness as he relaxed restrictions on free speech, allowed political exiles to return, and formed a coalition government with Liberals and febreristas. Cabeza de Vaca arrived in Asunción after having lived for eight years among the natives of Spanish Florida. Charles gave permission to Don Pedro de Mendoza to mount an expedition to the Plata basin. The final spark to rebellion came when Franco was exiled for criticizing Ayala. The colony, and in particular the Asunción municipal council (cabildo), earned a reputation for being in continual revolt against the Crown. [citation needed] The newly elected majority-opposition Congress quickly demonstrated its independence from the executive by rescinding legislation passed by the previous Colorado-dominated Congress. Much of the earliest written history of Paraguay comes from records of the Spanish colonization, beginning in 1516 with the Juan Díaz de Solís' failed expedition to the Río de la Plata. He admired and emulated the most radical elements of the French Revolution. They were released only after agreeing to pay an enormous collective indemnity of 150,000 pesos (about 75 percent of the annual state budget), an amount so large that it broke their predominance in the Paraguayan economy.[14]. El Supremo personally controlled every aspect of Paraguayan public life. A severe blow is struck to the pride of Asunción when its offspring city, Buenos Aires, is made in 1776 the capital of the new viceroyalty of La Plata.Resentment of the pretensions of the new capital is no doubt part of the reason why the citizens of Asunción refuse to join Buenos Aires in 1810 in its declaration of independence from Spain. Garcia was intrigued by reports of "the White King" who supposedly lived far to the West and governed cities of incomparable wealth and splendor. Despite his "isolationist" policies, Francia conducted a profitable but closely supervised import-export trade with both countries to obtain key foreign goods, particularly armaments. The core units of the Paraguayan army reached Corrientes in April 1865. Foreign exchange earnings from electricity sales to Brazil soared, and the newly employed Paraguayan workforce stimulated domestic demand, bringing about a rapid expansion in the agricultural sector. Desperate for cash because of heavy debts incurred in London in the early postwar period, the Colorados lacked a source of funds except through the sale of the state's vast holdings, which comprised more than 95% of Paraguay's total land. Coming home to backward, poor, xenophobic Paraguay from cosmopolitan, prosperous Buenos Aires was a big shock for the Legionnaires. The Liberals, like the Colorados, were a deeply factionalized political oligarchy. The eastern part of present-day Paraguay was occupied by Guaraní peoples for at least 1,000 years before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. This led to a withdrawal of Colorado support for Estigarribia, and an attempted coup on February 14, 1940 broke out in Campo Grande military base.[27]. Under Francia, Paraguay underwent a social upheaval that destroyed the old colonial elites. It had spent US$200 million, and its troops formed the largest army of occupation in the country; as a result Brazil temporarily overshadowed Argentina in control of the country. It also gave the military the duty to protect the Constitution, thus giving it a role in politics.[27]. At this point Caballero assumed the presidency and laid the foundations of the two-party system, remaining one of the most influential politicians until the 1904 Liberal revolution. University education was limited to the few who could afford studies at the National University of Córdoba, in present-day Argentina. Even with casualties of ten dead and 120 taken prisoner, Belgrano wanted to keep on fighting, but his officers convinced him to retreat. The eastern part of present-day Paraguay was occupied by Guaraní peoples for at least 1,000 years before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After thousands of Guaranís had been enslaved the viceroy in Peru finally allowed Guaranís to bear arms. Paraguay Independence Day Paraguayans set aside two days to celebrate their independence from Spain, which they won on May 14, 1811, after a bloodless revolution led by Dr. José Gaspar Rodrígue When he tried to fill it with the Colorado Party, he split the party in two, and neither faction could establish itself in power without help from the military. 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