This substrate serves as an electron donor resulting in microbial growth. ” Now let’s see how population growth is related to economic development. FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN TIGRAY REGION, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA by BIHON KASSA ABRHA Submitted in accordance with the requirement for the degree of DOCTOR OF LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY in the subject DEVELOPMENT STUDIES at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: PROF. ESTHER KIBUKA-SEBITOSI July 2015 Student Number: 4551-821-1 . Methodology Since the research topic is quite extensive and theoretical where there are a lot of Conceptual implications and statistical data, this research paper is heavily dependent on secondary sources for information and references. Birth Rate; It is the average number of the children born in a country compared to the rest of the population. Physical factors that affect population distribution include altitude and latitude, relief, climate, soils, vegetation, water and location of mineral and energy resources. Population may grow more slowly if, optimistically, fertility declines more quickly than experts expect (e. g. , between just 1965 and 1987 the average number of children born to Thai women dropped from 6. "You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy", Don't use plagiarized sources. Also, capitalism requires unemployment in order to ensure a docile, low-paid class of labourers. stream Then the nation will concentrate on finding out alternative raw material sources. the average number of the children born in a country compared to the rest of the population Before any analysis of the research question, at first it is important to understand what actually population growth and economic development means. FIGURE 2 Further, the phenomenal increase in human numbers over the past 250 years is largely the consequence of mortality declines—not fertility increases. It is only in some exceptional areas like those with extremely cold climate that the factor of climate itself determines population growth. In 2010, it was announced that the majority of the citizens first subject to the policy are no longer of reproductive age and it has been speculated that many citizens simply disregard or violate the policy in more recent years. The concentration of communities has accelerated the growth of populations. Tends to limit population growth Greater population size makes it difficult to obtain resources High population density usually leads to a reduction in growth rate. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. The... Mortality Rate. This high mortality was a function of several factors, including poor nutrition, which led directly to deaths through starvation and indirectly through increasing susceptibility to disease; epidemics; and, quite possibly, infanticide and geronticide, especially during times of food shortage. With respect to humans, the term growth refers to an increase in size; for example, going from a tiny newborn baby to a large adult. Although bacteria do increase in size before cell division, bacterial growth refers to an increase in the number of organisms rather than an increase in their size. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. A key factor affecting the growth of the population is the death, or mortality, rate. 100 In other words, economic development refers to the transition of a country from a low income economy to a high income economy with respect to its increased population. Then help was taken from secondary sources* for information and references. Based on observed trends in Western European societies, it argues that populations go through three stages in their transition to a modern pattern. It is in the less developed countries that the continued growth in population will occur in the twenty-first century. Population can also increase if the total emigration rate of the country is higher than the total immigration rate of the country. This is because technological improvements will result in increased production and can increase the overall demand of the country, thus resulting in economic growth. Mortality decline in less developed countries followed a different path. If population increases, then there will be more people to work and contribute to the economy. Dr. A. K. M. Kafiluddin, Professor Emeritus of National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine, in his book titled “Population Research, Environmental Conservation and Economic Development” talks about population growth and economic development from two perspectives: one from the global perspective and the other from the perspective of Bangladesh. Population and Family Planning Commissions exist at every level of government to raise awareness about the issue and carry out registration and inspection work. By BRAMUEL KITISHA KEDOGO A RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF A DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY … The writers conclude their discussion with the fact that birth rates in many developing countries have decreased in the recent years leaving a hope for optimism which is very true and also the developed countries should come forward with development assistance for the poor developing countries. Population growth can have both positive and negative effects on economic development of a country. If population increases and the economy are developed, then the level of living of the people of that country will tend to rise also. Economic development includes all the processes and policies through which a country makes its economic, political and social progress and ensures well being of its people. Thus, capitalist society is characterized by its own population principle, which Marx termed the “law of relative population surplus. Portner in his article on “Population Growth and Economic Development’ talks about why studying the relationship between population growth and economic development is important by giving detailed analysis on the purpose, structure and theories of population growth and economic development. Given a morally based preference for preventive checks, later followers of Malthus (neo-Malthusians) have supported family planning and contraception even though Malthus himself felt that contraception was unacceptable. The statistical data analysis is quite complex and needs special expertise to interpret the in depth meanings of the statistical values. The old killers of the past were to be replaced by chronic and degenerative diseases; the primary victims shifted from the young to the old. Population growth did not become exponential until around 1750. 15:32. Biotic factors that influence population growth are living organisms or their characteristics. With the detailed analysis of the research question, a conclusion was reached as to whether population growth leads to economic development or not. Migration may be of two types — in migration or immigration and out-migration or emigration. 1800 years ago there were 750 cities with more than 5000 inhabitants and 45 with more than 100000 inhabitants. 1 0 obj Other neo-Malthusians have focused upon the claimed negative effects of rapid population growth: war, violence, and environmental degradation. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 18 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 522 756] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Well Rostow’s theory was criticized for the fact that no society in practice comes to a peaceful and harmonious stage after it achieves economic development. D. Task on factors affecting population density Carefully read the material above; you could research online to find additional detail/factors. And those jobs are either disguised or an underemployment. Population Growth Determinant # 4. capacity to plan their families— factors that slow population growth through declines in fertility—create opportunities at both household and national levels that have positive implications for education, health, and labor and capital markets. Countries who are in the early stages of economic development tend to have higher rates of population growth. Marx disagreed with the Malthusian idea of a universal principle of population that applied to all societies. The firs one is genetic factors, which it includes disease resistance, feed conversion efficiency, breed, and abnormal growth rates. 16-3. By 2000 global population was 6 billion and is projected to be 9 billion in 2050. For Marx, population growth depended upon the economic base of society. There was a long period of stationary growth (no growth) until 1000 B. C. E. , when the world’s population was approximately 300 million; this was followed by a period of slow growth from 1000 B. C. E. to approximately 1750, at which time global population was an estimated 800 million. endobj DeltaStep 1,026 views. Resolution and Recommendation: Based on my observations, many agree that the population cause many problems in our country. Population will be controlled either by preventive checks (lowering the number of births, particularly by postponement of marriage age) or by positive checks (increasing deaths as a result of famines, plagues, natural disasters, war). Climate The climatic factors which affect plant growth include: Humidity Aeration Light Temperature Contribution/ Originality This study contributes in the existing literature by applying two population growth models to empirically examine the pattern of population growth in China and its influencing factors. There are now more than 28,000 cities with more than 5000 inhabitants and about 1000 with more than 100000 inhabitants. 5 percent in 2050. How fertility rates can lead to development, what happens when population growth is desirable and undesirable, what can be the role of developing nations in terms of population and economic policy planning and how developed nations can play their role and help developing countries with their population growth and economic development – all these issues are highlighted in the discussion with due importance and proper details. The concept, however, has been in existence in the West for centuries. For example, two sets of counteracting processes affect population size; birth and immigration increase populations while death and emigration decrease them. – Then the role of media as an intervening determinant was identified with the help of a suitable communication model. – A relationship was tried to establish between population growth and economic development with the help of statistical evidence and case studies. IGF’s are examples of the latter and their absence results in marked deficiency of overall growth (Figure 16-2). Chapman viewed population size determination as a balance between "biotic potential" and "environmental resistance". The writer elaborately talks about the economic consequences of population growth i. e. how the economy of a country is affected when population growth is faster and vice versa. The writer also talks about economic development saying that he relationship of population growth and economic development is not the same in every country, but normally population growth leads to other factors which help foster the economic growth of the country which may or may not be true for all the countries. Investments, the level of GDP per capita and population growth are the factors most significant to growth. The detailed methodology followed while preparing this paper is given below: – First the research idea was generated which is the relationship between population growth and economic development. Also, in societies without state pensions, parents often … Interpretation of the Data (Own Analysis): Now let’s proceed to the main discussion of whether population growth leads to economic development or not. Population growth, Growth model, Factors affecting population growth. Stage one (pre-transition) is characterized by low or no growth, and high fertility is counterbalanced by high mortality. Western mortality decline was relatively slow, paralleling socioeconomic development, and it occurred in a global context in which European population “surplus” (arising from gaps between lowering mortality and more slowly lowering fertility) was able to migrate to new areas (e. g. , the United States, Canada, and Australia) that were very sparsely populated by Aboriginal peoples (whose numbers were reduced even more by contagious diseases brought by Europeans). This will cause a shortage of goods and services and will trigger high prices in the market. The writer also talks about the implications of a high population growth on the economy in terms of employment levels, productivity and skills of labour, income disparities and changes in the production sectors to keep pace with the international markets. – The variables were identified and the factors affecting the variables were also distinguished. 2 0 obj This decline in deaths occurred not because of major medical breakthroughs (e. g. , penicillin was first used only in the 1940s) but rather because of improvements in food availability, housing, water cleanliness, personal hygiene, and public sanitation. Now let’s talk about economic development. From an early age, they can help with household tasks and collecting the harvest. Increase in the population will lead to the depletion of natural resources which are very limited. – The research question was then analyzed into further details taking into account the variables related to population growth and economic development. In poor regions, both investments and population growth are more significant than in rich instability on total factor productivity growth, which account for more than half of the effects on GDP growth. After 1750, the world’s population grew substantially; by 1950 it had tripled to around 2. These results go a long way to clearly understand why political instability is harmful to economic growth. %PDF-1.5 Marx envisioned that overpopulation would not occur in post capitalist, communist society. 2. Malthus formulated a “principle of population” that held that unchecked population grows more quickly than the means of subsistence (food and resources) to sustain it. 2 Determinants of population growth: Literature review and preliminary empirical analysis ... main factors affecting population dynamics and whether the influence of these factors depends on the level of analysis considered (namely national, regional or local). Developed countries of the world do not face the problem of overpopulation; in fact some developed countries lack sufficient manpower due to under population and have to attract immigrants from other countries to fill their manpower resources. Prepared for USAID/Ghana : by : Tom Easterling . For example, the biotic factors that influence a population are the presence of predators or hunters, the food supply, the density of the population itself, the biotic potential of the species and disease. In agriculturally based societies, children are seen as potential income earners. Death rates were high and life expectancy was low; life expectancy at birth was in the range of twenty to forty years (most likely around thirty years) until the middle of the eighteenth century. The first deaths to be reduced were those due to infectious diseases, the victims of which were most often children. 3 to 2. Modernization, Westernization, and especially Industrialization are other terms people have used when discussing economic development. Claus Chr. Migration: Migration is shifting of people from one place to another for residential and occupational reasons. By the end of this stage, fertility has begun to decline as well. Sibley International : October 2008: ACRONYMS . Other factors that control microbial populations are moisture content, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing INTRODUCTION A. Although no one is sure when the concept originated, most people agree that development is closely bound up with the evolution of capitalism and the demise of feudalism. As natural resources become scarce, the overall production processes hampered. – Since labour is cheap, the extra money can be used in technological research and development. In 2008, China’s National Population and Family Planning Commission said that the policy will remain in place for at least another decade. FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN KENYA, A CASE OF HURUMA DIVISION, NAIROBI COUNTY. Despite this policy, there are still many citizens that continue to have more than one child. Essay, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. (2017, Mar 07). Use the information to create a clear, visually appealing mind-map showing the physical and human factors affecting population density. Like other universities, FEU Diliman is experiencing a high number of BSA students’ shifters and low academic performance in accounting course. 16-4 Fig. Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/major-factors-affecting-the-increase-in-population-growth/, This is just a sample. endobj However, projections are not guarantees. �����e�9� 4V�eb� �O�}������bY%?�|������"9? As can be seen in Figure 1, the world’s population grew very slowly until about 1750. Factors influencing population growth. – Businesses will utilize the cheap labour and will provide them with more and better job facilities. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. Since savings decrease, generation of new investment is hampered that leads to negative economic growth. Later, in the twentieth century, medical advances, particularly vaccinations against infectious diseases, accelerated mortality decline. The growth rate of real GDP is the percentage change in real GDP from one year to the next. The rate of global population growth has declined significantly from its 1970s highs (see Figure 2). x��)B)Uy�&�K,M\�*y�)HbB� your own paper. Karl Marx’s views on population were directly opposed to those of Malthus. The writer then mentions that level of living is also linked with population growth. – Population growth creates a huge labour force and since labour is abundant in the society, it becomes cheaper also. issued to . The writer gives a well explained picture of how the total population of a country is divided into the working and non working class. The question is, how will we solve this problem. James W. Fox . Various factors are argued to be contributing to the growth in Malaysia, including trade openness, foreign direct investment (FDI), and institutional reforms. <> The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. 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