It is important for students to understand that not all faults become visible, even if catastrophic! An electrician is troubleshooting a faulty light circuit, where the power source and light bulb are far removed from one another: As you can see in the diagram, there are several terminal blocks (“TB”) through which electrical power is routed to the light bulb. About the Author: Warren Rhude is president of Simutech Multimedia Inc. an e-learning company that develops computer based training simulations for electrical troubleshooting. Why should we first consider single faults to account for the problems the circuit is having rather than considering interesting combinations of faults which would account for the same problems? It doesn’t indicate, for example, what the mechanic’s prediction was when deciding to do a voltage check of the battery with the engine stopped and with the engine running. Describe another scenario where a different sequence of voltage readings could have saved time in locating the problem. TYPE (BASIC) The fault is located somewhere between TB3 and TB4. As Murphy’s Law would predict, electrical control system issues usually happen with the worst possible timing. Upon disassembling the divider circuit and checking resistance with an ohmmeter, though, both resistors are revealed to be in perfect operating condition. Where do you think the problem is in this circuit? Unfortunately, in your rush to get to the job site you forgot to bring your test equipment. Navigate Electrical Troubleshooting for Your Facility. Basic Troubleshooting Techniques Freedom High School Systems Management. Your friend has already done some troubleshooting of his own: after turning off the amplifier and letting the smoke clear, he turned it back on at low volume to find that the left channel is dead, but the right channel is still working. These terminal blocks provide convenient connection points to join wires together, enabling sections of wire to be removed and replaced if necessary, without removing and replacing all the wiring. Basic Electrical Troubleshooting; Advanced Electrical Troubleshooting; PDF Library. There is, however, a potential hazard to doing this. Steps in the scientific method are indicated by superscript numbers at the end of sentences in the original narrative: Steps 3 and 5 are labeled parenthetically because the story does not tell what the mechanic was thinking. The following four troubleshooting techniques are popular and widely used to find defects in communication equipment. This is a common mistake students make when applying the “divide-and-conquer” method of troubleshooting: that whatever component(s) located between the point of good measurement and the point of bad measurement must be the source of the problem. Basic Electrical Troubleshooting A boiler feed pump being powered by two 3500 HP inducti on motors appears to be developing a problem. Troubleshooting Regulations This task wasmade easier by the fact that we both had a set of schematics for the installation; but even if I hadn’t had a set, the troubleshooting process could have proceeded, albeit at a slower pace. Explain why or why not. One of the principles frequently applied in science is Ockham’s Razor, named after Sir William of Ockham (1284-1350). I will present four different “swap” scenarios to you, with two different outcomes for each. Each cord has one (male) plug and a receptacle (female) end that accepts up to three plugs: Despite this dangerous wiring, all tools have functioned so far without trouble. Ohm’s Law is the basic formula used in all AC and DC electrical circuits. •voltage always follows the path of least resistance •it takes less than 1 amp of current to stop your heart. You know that the main utility connection at the street is “live,” because the gas heater in the contractor mobile building is working just fine. This seems especially true when students answer troubleshooting questions on written exams. Upon opening the cabinet door for this equipment, your nose is greeted by the pungent odor of burnt circuit board (a smell you are unlikely to forget, once having experienced it). I’ll let you determine what the nature of this fault most likely is, and why the strategy employed in this scenario probably wasn’t the wisest. Can you check it out?”. basic electrical theory & troubleshooting. This troubleshooting strategy is sometimes referred to as the “divide-and-conquer” method, because it divides the system into small sections to optimize troubleshooting time and effort. Some students may question this logic, believing that the left and right channels of a stereo amplifier would be mirror-symmetric rather than identical, and thus possibly contain different components. It consists of three basic elements: a battery, a lamp, and connecting wires. As a technician, you are sent to troubleshoot a complex piece of electronic equipment that has stopped working. This Basic Electrical Training course is designed to meet the training needs of junior electrical maintenance personnel engaged in the daily troubleshooting€of industrial electrical equipment. A technician following the “divide-and-conquer” troubleshooting strategy begins by measuring voltage across the lower resistor (finding 0 volts), then measuring voltage across both resistors (finding 12 volts): Based on these measurements, the technician concludes that the upper resistor must be failed open. Field testing and repairing can be accomplished with basic tools and repair parts which should include the following-: A quality multimeter [multitester] capable of reading less than one ohm and with a specific diode testing fun<:tion. Basic electrical tools including cutters, soldering iron, I’ll let you determine the answers to this question! 57:39 – ACC2 Diagnostics . A very powerful method for discerning cause-and-effect relationships is scientific method. always turn off power when working inside a control panel, or on any other electrical Electrical Troubleshooting October 2006 PASSAGEMAKER 103 of locations throughout his electrical system. Follow-up question: describe the general principle you used to locate the suspect area of this power network. But which one could it be? Read the part numbers off the power transistors for the right channel output! With the load connected, the parallel combination of load and 1 kΩ resistor results in an effective resistance of less than 1 kΩ on the lower half of the divider, resulting in a voltage of less than half the total supply voltage.). Electrical Safety Electrical Troubleshooting can be hazardous. interconnection of electrical devices. How do you (and the mechanic) know? Two computer technicians are called to troubleshoot malfunctioning computer systems. Identify the most likely location of the fault in this system, and explain why the ßwap interchangeable components” strategy got you into trouble. Rest assured, with the help of your vehicle’s repair manual and some basic electrical troubleshooting knowledge, everybody should be able to find and fix most electrical problems in no time. Electricity has long been recognized as a serious workplace hazard, exposing employees to electric shock, electrocution, burns, fires and explosions. In this case, the good component it it swapped with will be damaged in the swap, and the bad component will not work where it is moved to. Describe a procedure for determining the location of the problem (chandelier vs. bulb), without using any electrical test instruments. A “virtual” troubleshooting exercise such as this one is a good way to start students thinking in the right ways to becoming effective troubleshooters. Despite the undeniable power of the “swap interchangeable components” strategy, it is not fool-proof. The gas pipeline servicing these houses is laid out in the following manner: Each black dot on the diagram is a shutoff valve, used for isolating different sections of the service pipeline. Since garden hoses easily detach from spigots and nozzles alike, they lend themselves well to the so-called “divide-and-conquer” method of troubleshooting. The problem could be in the chandelier’s wiring (open wire connection, open connection in socket), or in the bulb itself (burned-out filament). Switching the power cables back to their original receptacles doesn’t make things better, either. Adopting a logical and systematic approach such as the 5 Step Troubleshooting Approach can help you to troubleshoot like an expert! If test passes, hypothesis is provisionally confirmed. Based on the heating technician’s report, you conclude that the service pipeline going up to that house must not be “live,” and that one of the numbered valves was probably left in the off position. By the way, this type of question is excellent for a written test! This is a common assumption made by beginning troubleshooters: that the most obvious failure is the only failure, or that it must be the primary failure. However, before you step out of the room to go do this, one of your co-workers suggests you start your search at the middle point of the pipeline instead: at the location of valve #4. There is, however, a potential hazard to doing this. There, the damage is visually apparent: both of the power transistors for the left channel output are burnt beyond recognition. “Not exactly,” you reply, “but maybe I can help you anyway.”, “My welder’s dead - it doesn’t even turn on. When in doubt, never hesitate to ask a certified mechanic for help. Don't have an AAC account? When components have been heated to such a degree that they emit strong odors, the damage is often visible as well, which makes it easier to locate problem areas. The technician wrongly assumed that an open (upper) resistor was the only possible fault that could have caused the observed voltage readings. Basic mechanical and electrical skills are assumed. Deciding to apply your ßwap interchangeable components” troubleshooting strategy, you turn off both welders’ power switches, then turn off the disconnect switches at both receptacles and swap the power cables between receptacles: When you turn the disconnect switches on and try to start both welders, you find that neither one turns on now! 2 Objectives Provide basic tools and terms used in computer troubleshooting Identify major internal and external computer components by sight Verbalize basic troubleshooting steps If you were asked to troubleshoot each system, how would you approach the two systems differently? This problem gives students a chance to explore the “divide and conquer” strategy of troubleshooting in a context that is very simple and does not require knowledge of electricity. A new residential neighborhood is being built, and you are working as a member of the construction crew. The voltmeter’s test leads are only long enough to check for voltage between pairs of connections at each terminal block. Scenario #1, outcome #1: problem is not in the microphone. Your co-worker’s strategy is based on the principle of dividing the gas pipeline into halves, and checking for pressure at the half-way point. Experienced technicians have developed a method for troubleshooting. A chandelier has five light bulbs in it, and one of them is not working. Discuss with your students the relationship between the mechanic’s steps and the steps given for scientific method. ‘¥bl« When you flip it’s power switch on, welder #2 turns on just like it should. What steps are recommended to take next, if any? The fact that you can smell trouble indicates you are most likely dealing with a catastrophic failure caused by (or resulting in) excessive current. Electrical designers use it to determine how much voltage is required for a certain load, like a motor, a computer, or even a house full of appliances. A very good way to determine which of these components is faulted is to swap cables and speakers between sides, but I’ll let you determine which component swaps test which components. Whether or not the electrician’s sequence was the most efficient depends on two factors not given in the problem: Follow-up question: describe a scenario where the given sequence of voltage readings would be the most efficient. A similar hazard occurs if the swapped component was damaged because of other components in the system that it’s connected to. The likely location of the fault is in welder #1. Having an effective troubleshooting plan and following it can help obtain this feeling of satisfaction. Remember that the speaker cables detach easily from the speakers and from the amplifier. You unsolder the transistors from the circuit board and unscrew them from the heat sink, but you cannot read the part numbers on their cases due to the thermal damage. Follow-up question: upon further investigation, you locate the charred remains of an electronic component, located on one of the system’s circuit boards. As an industrial electrician, you'll encounter many complex electrical circuits and drives that will break down as they age. An electrician is troubleshooting a faulty light circuit, where the power source and light bulb are far removed from one another: AC voltage source TB1 TB2 TB5 TB4 TB6 TB3 Light As you can see in the diagram, there are several terminal blocks (”TB”) through which electrical … Describes and illustrates techniques for troubleshooting electrical and electronic circuits with a focus on control circuits and motors. Troubleshooting Plan | Electronics Troubleshooting Techniques. This circuit is called a voltage divider, because it presents a fractional portion of the total voltage to the load: (Of course, with no load connected, the voltage across the lower resistor would be precisely 6 volts. Tools and techniques. Basic Electronic Troubleshooting Techniques. Such interconnection is referred to as an electric circuit, and each component of the circuit is known as an element. What ranges of problems might you expect from each system? Efficient troubleshooters never limit themselves to a rigid methodology if other methods are more efficient. Suppose that something goes wrong in this voltage divider circuit, and the load voltage suddenly falls to zero. Details basic electrical theory and troubleshooting. Read Online Hvac Basic Electrical Troubleshooting Guide Hvac Basic Electrical Troubleshooting Guide Thank you unquestionably much for downloading hvac basic electrical troubleshooting guide.Maybe you have knowledge that, people have see numerous period for their favorite books taking into account this hvac basic electrical troubleshooting guide, but end stirring in harmful downloads. Nearly anyone who is familiar with basic electronic theory can learn troubleshooting techniques and fix many types of electronic failures. Gauges, lights, lights, circuit breakers and more. Components known to be okay include the left speaker, left speaker cable, and power cord for the amplifier. That isn’t a problem, however, because you know how to troubleshoot systems by swapping interchangeable components. æåËŠ“ÁdÚNÓá¡T‘È$¿¹tËVoÂãüŸ"oBa2~1˜ŽTlÆîᤃ |oÝÎÚ´{ðùظÙÄ´ÎMGÓ7³n2„ÙëÉññìß]¹àL|³³-¾×–Ëçêg9WÞçQ£&Ð= So if you know two of the three characteristics, your can calculate the third one. Scenario #3, outcome #2: the problem is not in the mixer. From this information alone, determine what sections of this “network” are good, and what sections are suspect. Print or download this article direct to your device. Scenario #4, outcome #2: cable #2 is faulty. The first computer is a unit that has been in operation for over two years, while the second system is a brand-new prototype, still in the developmental stages. A friend of yours brings you their damaged stereo amplifier, hoping that perhaps you would be able to repair it cheaper than the local electronics repair shop. We eventually ascertained that a Failure of this pump will result in the loss of a generator currently producing half of the station’s power output. of the generator, troubleshooting is relatively easy. What error did the technician make in concluding the upper resistor must have been failed open? Take advantage of this course called The Complete Windows Network Troubleshooting Guide to improve your Networking skills and better understand Network Troubleshooting.. All the other channels are working just fine, though. There is nothing “right-handed” or “left-handed” about the two channels. The logical thinking behind this troubleshooting strategy may confound some of your students, so be prepared to spend adequate time covering and re-covering (if necessary) this question. Explain why your co-worker’s idea is better, and also what your next step would be if: (a) you did find pressure at that point, and (b) if you did not find pressure at that point. The amplifier was damaged at a recent party, when one of your friend’s guests turned up the volume to full and left it there until smoke billowed out of the power amplifier chassis. Swap the non-working bulb for one of the other four working bulbs, and see if the problem moves with the bulb. Fortunately, electrical circuit troubleshooting is an activity that works well for small groups of students to engage in as well as individual students. The terminal blocks are located too far apart to allow for voltage checks between blocks (say, between one connection in TB2 and another connection in TB3). This simple troubleshooting technique is applicable to a wide variety of electrical, electronic, and other types of systems: swap the suspect component with an identical component known to be functional, and see observe whether or not the problem changes location. Aug 31, 2016 - How to wire your car from scratch. This is not good, because without knowing the proper part numbers, your friend cannot order the proper replacement transistors to repair the amplifier. This stereo system has a problem: only one of the two speakers is emitting sound. A music recording studio is equipped with three microphones, each of which connect to the “mixer” panel by means of shielded cables: The purpose of the mixer is to function as a multi-channel audio signal amplifier, to control the volume of each sound channel so that a good “mix” is obtained for recording. Because it is simply more likely that one thing has failed, than that multiple (unrelated) things have failed in just the right way to cause the problem to occur. The course presents€an overview of other common electrical work activities such as preventive maintenance. Basic Electrical Engineering Pdf Free Download | BEE Notes Pdf. Successfully troubleshooting a complex piece of equipment gives a technician a tremendous sense of satisfaction. Published under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License. To troubleshoot, you simply follow logical, step-by-step procedures to arrive at a solution. I do not expect that you will provide specific, technical answers, because I have given very little information about the malfunctioning systems. What do you do? Then suddenly both the worklight and the circular saw in the lower-right corner of the illustration stop working. When assisting students with lab projects, what typical problems do you encounter with the circuits they build, and how do these problems typically differ from problems you’ve seen in real-life electronic equipment? safetyis the most important thing. For instance, shorted wiring located far from the equipment enclosure may have caused the components to destruct. What I want is for you to think in general terms: how might the scope of possible problems differ between any two similar systems, one of which is proven while the other is untried? The studio technician, you job is to consider wild combinations of faults in a dc generator using test! 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Logical and systematic approach such as preventive maintenance indistinguishable sound of the station’s output. Or any other test equipment, because you know how to wire your car from scratch Commons License...