Thks, Your email address will not be published. After he assumed the pontificate in 1484, one of Innocent’s first official acts was the issuing of a bull condemning witchcraft. [2], Kors and Peters, p. 180; Burr, p. 7: Burr also refers to this document as. According to Herbert Thurston, the fierce denunciation and persecution of supposed sorceresses which characterized the cruel witchhunts of a later age, were not generally found in the first thirteen hundred years of the Christian era. Required fields are marked *, © The Bull is also printed in full at the head of the Malleus maleficarum. 2020 The Malleus Maleficarum. On 5 Dec., 1484, he issued his much-abused Bull against witchcraft, and 31 May, 1492, he solemnly received at Rome the Holy Lance which the Sultan surrendered to the Christians. ... Innocent VIII: To the p[er]petuall memory of this he [ ] to he hade, by his p[ro]pre mocion without p[ro]curewent of our soverayn lord the Kyng or other person for consernacyon of the vniuersal peas and esehewyng of Sklaun­dres, and to … In 1394, Pedro de Lunatic, aka Pope Benedict XIII, declared himself pontiff at Avignon, in opposition to Pope "Innocent" VIII. Popes issued documents, known as papal bulls, in their administration of Church affairs. S ummis desiderantes affectibus, (Latin for “Desiring with supreme ardor”), so named after its opening words and sometimes abbreviated to Summis desiderantes, was a papal bull regarding witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on 5 December 1484. Given at Rome, at S. Peter’s, on the 9 December of the Year of the Incarnation of Our Lord one thousand four hundred and eighty-four, in the first year of Our Pontificate. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. [11], The bull, which synthesized the spiritual and the secular crimes of witchcraft,[12] is often viewed as opening the door for the witchhunts of the early modern period. At the same time by Letters Apostolic We require Our venerable Brother, the Bishop of Strasburg (Albrecht von Bayern, 1478-1506 – ed. Constantly confronted with a depleted treasury, he resorted to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices and granting them to the highest bidders. On December 5th, 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued an edict (Bull) entitled Summis desiderantes affectibus alleging that many men and women were in collusion with the Devil. Your email address will not be published. INNOCENT VIII 1484—1492 [4], The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Inquisitor Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities,[2] who maintained that as the letter of deputation did not specifically mention where the inquisitors may operate, they could not legally exercise their functions in their areas. by Valérie Pirie < Prev T of C ... Plates Prelim. During what is known as the Little Ice Age, the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. It’s from a Papal Bull called Summis Desiderantes Affectibus, issued by Pope Innocent VIII, at the request of the aforementioned Heinrich Kramer. The bull essentially repeated Kramer's view that an outbreak of witchcraft and heresy had occurred in the Rhine River valley, specifically in the bishoprics of Mainz, Cologne, and Trier, as well as in Salzburg and Bremen, including accusations of certain acts. Its direct purport was to ratify the powers already conferred upon Kramer (also known as "Henry Institoris") and James Sprenger to deal with witchcraft as well as heresy, and it called upon the Bishop of Strasburg (then Albert of Palatinate-Mosbach) to lend the inquisitors all possible support. The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves. Jun 3, 2015 - During what is known as the Little Ice Age, the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. [3] Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope.[6]. During what is known as the Little Ice Age , the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. The Pamfili resided originally at Gubbio, in Umbria, but came to Rome during the pontificate of Innocent VIII. This specific cultural and intellectual background that made the German witchhunts possible is explored by H. Erik Midelfort, Thurston, Herbert. Established the papal conclave as the method of selection for a pope, imposing progressively stricter restrictions on cardinals the longer a conclave lasted to encourage a quick selection. In 1296 he issued the bull Clericis laicos, which forbade under the sanction of automatic excommunication any imposition of taxes on the clergy without express license by the pope. After the death of Pope Alexander VIII, he was elected Pope in July 1691. Del Rio, Martin Antoine and Maxwell-Stuart, P. G.. Halsall, Paul. 1486-1487: Institoris (Heinrich Kraemer) and Jacob Sprenger published the Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches' Hammer). This bull had some effect in England, chiefly because of its support by the archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Winchelsey, but in France there was no strong defender of papal prerogative against the concerted … Pope Innocent XI appointed him a Cardinal of San Pancrazio in 1668. "Innocent VIII: BULL Summis desiderantes, Dec. 5th, 1484", Witchcraft and divination in the Old Testament, Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants, Treatises on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Summis_desiderantes_affectibus&oldid=992889315, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 17:18. The decree explicitly declares that Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger have papal authority to lead inquisitorial procedures against suspected witches and other heretics in … Pope Innocent VIII Summis desiderantes affectibus ( English : Desiring with supreme ardor ) [1] [2] was a papal bull issued by Pope Innocent VIII on December 5, 1484. 1484: Pope Innocent VIII issued a papal bull "Summis desiderantes" on DEC-5 which promoted the tracking down, torturing and executing of Satan worshipers. Pope Innocent VIII Summis desiderantes affectibus , ( Latin for Desiring with supreme ardor ), sometimes abbreviated to Summis desiderantes [1] [2] was a papal bull regarding witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on December 5, 1484. [9] Despite this threat, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and to compile his views on witchcraft into his book Malleus Maleficarum, which was published in 1487. The Malleus professed, in part fraudulently, to have been approved by the University of Cologne, and it was sensational in the stigma it attached to witchcraft as a worse crime than heresy and in its notable animus against women. Innocent VIII, original name Giovanni Battista Cibo, (born 1432, Genoa—died July 25/26, 1492, Rome), pope from 1484 to 1492. It also justifies the enslavement of Africans. Pope Alexander VI issues a papal bull or decree, “Inter Caetera," in which he authorizes Spain and Portugal to colonize the Americas and its Native peoples as subjects. On December 5th, 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued an edict (Bull) entitled Summis desiderantes affectibus alleging that many men and women were in collusion with the Devil. "Witchcraft." Quotes from the 1928 English translation of the bull. All Christians were required to assist the two Dominican monks, Jacob Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer, placed in charge of handling this supposed Witchcraft problem. The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Inquisitor Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities. This papal bull, distributed by Innocent VIII in 1488, asserts the pope’s privilege of appointing the Master of the Spanish Order of St. James of Compostella, the pre-eminent pilgrimage site in Europe. 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