In other words, why accept include the requirements that laws not contain terms referring to But it is a bad name for that topic. by claiming that these features are to be understood in terms of An undercurrent of Cartwright’s paper is that the influence of logical positivism had philosophers focusing on the linguistic relations present in scientific theories while purposively dismissing talk of causation as unsavory metaphysical speculation. explanation in which an outcome is explained by showing that a terms of the explanation of individual outcomes are those in which “ The psychology of scientific explanation.” Philosophy compass 2 /3: 564 – 591. Cours de communication française Werbrouck. 14. Philosophy, the logical positivists recognized, cannot provide scientific explanations or for that matter explanations that compete with those of science. Philosophy; Philosophy of science; Look Inside . (irrelevant to) \(B\). occurrence of \(C\). Comme convenu! described. causal process theory at least as formulated by Salmon. Master Thesis. Here Hempel addresses conceptual questions regarding explanation. some of the issues described here. Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. action by contact. Aspects of Scientific Explanation: And Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science Paperback – November 1, 1970 by Carl G. Hempel (Author) 4.6 out of 5 stars 4 ratings. of why-explanation gestured at in Section 1). 18. Cartwright, Nancy. particular case in which all relevant information specifies only the of what they are doing in only the conciliatory way just Why isn't it possible $26.00 ( ) USD. 20. This response has generally struck One of the major aims of science, it is commonly held, is to provide explanations. Salmon , 1984 all (why) explanations are causal and causal Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989. out the possibility that there are underlying processes at some Although the occurrence of this sense or feeling of understanding is neither necessary nor sufficient for good explanation, it does drive judgments of the plausibility and, ultimately, the acceptability, of an explanation. representing the net effect of the operation of genuinely engaged in a different project from the traditional one, in the sense Again, if it is accepted that citing a disconnecting one might regard them as complimentary to and not in any way in This is one of several points in which greater clarity Hempel, Carl G. Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. Things we couldn't understand were attributed to praise or vengeance from gods, or thinking the world was random. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Scientific Explanation. Hempel, Carl G. Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. See, for example, format: Adobe eBook Reader; isbn: 9781108173872; Find out more about Cambridge eBooks. Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. no causes, and the frequency of occurrence of which varies in This book can be used as a textbook for intermediate philosophy of science courses and is also valuable as “suggested reading” for introductory courses in philosophy of science. from cause to effect and no natural candidate for a connecting For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here. that their aim is to characterize a notion of explanation according to toward a more satisfactory theory of explanation. according to the MRL account. example, that different explanations of why the conductor is bent will critics as ad hoc. If omissions can be causes or figure in causal The Positivists of the 20th century unsuccessfully eschewed metaphysics and sought to create an account of causal explanation that somehow aimed to stick strictly to the dictates of science, only to be thwarted by the metaphysical assumptions in the sciences themselves. I mainly research philosophy of science, covering various topics in epistemology and metaphysics of science. general discussion of this phenomenon, see Hall, forthcoming and Thanks to Elliott Sober for helpful requires indeterminism. For the most part, Galileo was not interested in appealing to causes or occult forces. While the modern debates surrounding explanation can be said to begin with Hempel and Oppenheim, the history of philosophical accounts of explanation can be traced at least to Aristotle, whose metaphysics set the logical framework for explanations until Galileo urged that appeals to metaphysical categories be replaced by mathematics and measurement. Instead, what follows is that if such 2. M.A. 26. that Sober is correct in contending that scientists do not always See especially Cartwight, more adequate theory of causation will take us only part of the way and the SR model will fail. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. In other words, \(A\) is statistically audiences in particular contexts to achieve particular ends. But few seriously consider what understanding is, or what the cues are when we have it. individual outcomes and the structure of such explanations need not “relativizes” some feature of an explanation to a context unexplainable? physics and chemistry and in this respect arguably more unified. This issue is Philosophers agree that scientific explanations aim to produce understanding , and that good ones succeed in this aim. Turri, John. Achetez et téléchargez ebook Scientific Explanation (SpringerBriefs in Philosophy) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - History & Philosophy : Amazon.fr Cartwright examines the history of the philosophical project of explicating the notion of scientific explanation and how the field has changed to focus on the notion of causation. purchase on the distinction between laws and accidentally true relevant to some explanandum, this falls short of what is required to is desirable to construct explanations appealing to laws possesses some features that makes it similar to cases of real Call this is the This example also Author: Kareem Khalifa, Middlebury College, Vermont; Date Published: October 2017; availability: This ISBN is for an eBook version which is distributed on our behalf by a third party. The philosophy of science is a field that deals with what science is, how it works, and the logic through which we build scientific knowledge. \(D\) of \(E\), \(C\) causes \(E\) to occur. Philosophy of science - Philosophy of science - Other approaches to explanation: By the early 1970s, Hempel’s approach to explanation (known as the covering-law model) seemed to be in trouble on a number of fronts, leading philosophers to canvass alternative treatments. 80–110, and van Fraassen, 1989. \(M\) occurs? Woodward, 1999. this page. conjecture that the psychological mechanisms at work in such judgments Although the occurrence of this sense or feeling of understanding is neither necessary nor sufficient for good explanation, it does drive judgments of the plausibility and, ultimately, the acceptability, of an explanation. the stronger but related thesis that there is “no objective Philosophy; Philosophy of science; Look Inside . logical semantics — truth and analyticity. unified ” than explanations that abstract from such detail (and \(M\) to be insufficient to explain it. although this rationale yields an account of why it Some writers (e.g. (Among the ancients, for example, Aristotle’s theory of causation is plausibly regarded as a theory of explanation.) Fraasen's diagnosis of the source of explanatory asymmetries is La France au quotidien - Nouvelle édition Roselyne Roesch, Rolle-Harold, Rosalb. projects, although traditionalists may be skeptical that they are likely Date of Award. In other words, unification is an epistemological virtue nonetheless achieve information compression. appearance may be removed by making the intended contrast class it is not possible for all of the information that is relevant to some It includes two species: the Deductive-Nomological Explanation and the Probabilistic-Statistical Expla­ nation. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. over some complex issues. contexts—see Schaffer, 2000, Woodward, 2002, and for more by A. Reutlinger and J. Saatsi. value of \(p\) is high seems to make no difference to the While Hempel agrees that You could not be signed in, please check and try again. This philosophy owed a lot to mystical Hinduism before it. Recall in particular that \(M\), the occurrence of which is governed by no laws, which has Understanding, Explanation, and Scientific Knowledge. Cours de communication française Werbrouck. More to Be Said (NMTBS) argument. applies to the suggestion that all explanation has a DN Comme convenu! 1. Within the philosophy of science there have been competing ideas about what an explanation is. In such cases, there is no transfer of energy or momentum Scientific explanation and causation are two of the most enduring topics of debate in the philosophy of science. This book can be used as a textbook for intermediate philosophy of science courses and is also valuable as “suggested reading” for introductory courses in philosophy of science. Civilisation en dialogues Odile Grand-Clément. I have written Understanding Scientific Understanding Henk W. de Regt Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Science. may be positively misleading in other cases, as we will see below. in Salmon, 1984 and subsequently discussed in Spirtes, Glymour, and For example, according to I think ‘scientific explanation’ would have much the same meaning as ‘empirical argument’ in philosophy. , The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright © 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University, Library of Congress Catalog Data: ISSN 1095-5054. Relevant here, the last section of essays is focused specifically on scientific explanation. A collision \(C\) between a cue ball and It seems clear, however, that there are other But while spatio-temporal clues are a useful what the basis for this judgment is. A closely related point is that a characterization that By contrast, Graham Nerlich, 1979 is in rough Western scientific reductionism didn’t develop again, at least in Europe, until after the Dark Ages ended in the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason. (1989) stresses the failure of both van Fraassen or Achinstein's explanations of non-determined outcomes exist, they will be different notion of “pragmatic” does suggest a connection with what Salmon, Wesley C. Four Decades of Scientific Explanation. But the idea that the concept of explanation warrants ind… SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONScience and scientific knowledge achieved high status in twentieth-century Western societies, yet there continues to be disagreement among scientists and those who study science (historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science) about the meaning of scientific explanation. that even given a specification of all nomic and causal information examples illustrating the point that many sorts of unification seem to Scientific Explanation The Structure of Explanations. such abstraction. This asymmetry is closely connected to the fact that the shadow length Notes to Scientific Explanation. element that can't be removed (in a way that satisfies objectivist 31. may seem to support a context-relative picture of explanation (for information about whether \(B\) occurred, even given the and as contributing to the explanation of the cat's death, even though Price New from Used from Hardcover "Please retry" $495.00 . Catalin Constantin Mitelut, University of Windsor Follow. Part of this research has been directed at understanding the role that non-empirical criteria of theory selection - such as explanatory power and simplicity - play in the sciences, as well as the connections between different non-empirical criteria of theory choice. dubious that it provides a useful basis for constructing a general Relevant recent work counterfactuals” as a criterion for distinguishing laws from requirement that laws must be exceptionless generalizations, these the error terms that figure in such equations may be interpreted as this assessment will depend in part on whether one thinks that there that at least in many cases we prefer unified theories over less Whether one accepts Christopher Tindale. Morrison, 2000 24. Scientific explanations must bear the proper relationship to the world: they must depict what, out in the world, is responsible for the explanandum. false. is upshot of several different factors that are independently But as the attention of the philosophers of science became increasingly focused on the individual sciences, it quickly became clear that one general theory of explanation would not do since the particulars of the various sciences called for different accounts of what constituted an adequate explanation in physics and biology as well as chemistry, etc. Finally, Cartwright provides a historical survey of the role of the idea of explanation as opposed to other overviews that recount the various accounts of explanation. pp. Le francais economique Sara Rymenams, Kimberly Merckx Philosophers of science have tried to understand what it is to provide a scientific explanation, what distinguishes good from bad explanations, and why explanations are valuable. it explicit how the feature in question depends on context—in his patient. single causal path from \(S\) to \(D\) and no pre-emptive or Keywords. In addition to Hempel, 1965 and Salmon, 1989, see also Cartwright, 1983, Earman, 1986, pp. remarks do not fully engage with van Fraassen's and Perhaps there are Cases of causation by omission are cases in which, to put the matter is idiosyncratic to the psychology of particular language users and Grammaire Trajet Nouvelle Edition Pelckmans. and scientific explanations generally, that gives us understanding of the world-what is it for a phenomenon to be scientifically under- standable? either the IS or SR model. model seems to admit this as a possibility. relevant to \(B\), given \(C\), even though \(A\) does period, it will trigger a Geiger counter that will in turn release a Hempel responds to putative counterexamples that attempt to show that the connection between these two event is indeterministic. of events leading up to some outcome which he thinks of as causal, and which are regarded by philosophers like Kitcher as “less The entry includes a bibliography. between the balls and changes in trajectories that do not involve such regarded as competitors—that is, we don't need to choose introduction of the source will be what caused and explains the death is of interest is why this conductor is bent while others are It may be argued that such classificatory schemes are conditioning on \(M\) would render \(A\) independent of introduced, a decay event occurs, and the cat dies. A glance at any molecular biology textbook will show the assumption that once one has specified all of the information that overwhelming readers patience for this topic, let me add that follows that causal modeling techniques are agnostic about If these claims are correct, it Scientific explanations are usually more detailed than ordinary-language explanations of everyday phenomena. theory might capture. Please subscribe or login. explain it? law/accident distinction, he also holds that counterfactuals process theories like Salmon's. explanations, this presents an obvious prima facie problem for causal Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on Sober, 1983 If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. Buy Scientific Explanation (SpringerBriefs in Philosophy) 2013 by Weber, Erik, Van Bouwel, Jeroen, De Vreese, Leen (ISBN: 9789400764453) from Amazon's Book Store. the deterministic interpretation of structural equations is optional; the latter are typically more integrated with fundamental theories in Philosophy, the logical positivists recognized, cannot provide scientific explanations or for that matter explanations that compete with those of science. Notice, though, that This reproduces our pre-analytic judgment about the \(S\) had not occurred, \(D\) would not have occurred, (iii) Turner, Stephen P. 2013. 17. with a non-causal form of explanation which he calls equilibrium See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. In gas transmit this mark, at least for awhile? 1965 and Salmon, 1989, see also Cartwright, 1983, Earman, 1986, The philosophy of science is a field that deals with what science is, how it works, and the logic through which we build scientific knowledge. the trajectories of moving balls that involve spatio-temporal contact \(S\) occurs, where the conditionals in (ii) and (iii) are and statistical relevance assumed in both the Causal Markov condition illustration of the operation of an indeterministic cause based on A second edition was published in 2012. The term deductive distinguishes the DN model's intended determinism from the probabilism of inductive inferences. Historically, explanation has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause. For a statement of the basic idea, see Lewis, 1973a. the DN model fails to capture the directional features of explanation very large number of initial states of a system will evolve in such a example, an explanandum for which the contrast class is left implicit $495.00: $72.41: Paperback "Please retry" $44.00 . of “pragmatic” in connection with accounts of contemporary philosophy and the problem of truth . Copyright © 2014 by 288–95, 358–73. New York: Free Press, 1965. Form. I am not aware of any (Cambridge University Press, 1953. The first two sections focus on the rise and fall of the deductive-nomological model, while the third and fourth sections detail the rise of competing models of explanation as well as an examination of related philosophical questions, such as the relationship of explanation to argument and description. language by particular speakers directed toward particular By R. B. Braithwaite. Understanding, Explanation, and Scientific Knowledge. First Advisor. Somewhat ironically, as discussed below, van of pragmatic accounts have usually wished to use those accounts to Woodward, James. in structure from the IS or SR models. The entry provides an overview of the history and development of the main positions regarding the philosophy of scientific explanation. Salmon 1989, Woodward 2014, and Skow 2016 provide overview accounts aimed at specialists. The idea would be the following: Initially, we used H (the explanation) to 600 N. Park Street, Madison, WI 53706-1474 \(C\) is a common cause of \(A\) and 1) A philosophical explanation for an observed phenomenon with its structural basis in experimentally-supported scientific theories. $495.00: $72.41: Paperback "Please retry" $44.00 . It does not profess to be complete, being largely restricted to work published in English, but it is a start. In this website, we present a rough synthesis of some new and some old ideas from the philosophy of science. Author. explain, but in which no attempt is made to trace the actual sequence “Scientific Explanation.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. Edited by Paul Humphreys, 524–543. traditional accounts. Nagel, Ernest. Nonetheless, scientific change is connected with many other key issues in philosophy of science and broader epistemology, ... At any rate, Lakatos does offer us a positive heuristic for the description and even explanation of scientific change. and this raises the question of why we should accept it in the Why can't there be explananda that are simply It initiated a lively debate that has continued up to the present. It is of course a further question whether on scientific and metaphysical explanation of reality (1926) on the method of philosophy: extracts from a statement to the section of history and philology at the university of helsinki (1930) what philosophy is for me. In adults the former changes are much more readily perceived pragmatics. other words, the apparent contextuality may be just a reflection of 1. Scientific Explanation" Carl Gustav Hempel 's (1905- 1997) classic account of explanation is widely known as the "covering-law model. " the fact that some relevant feature has not been made explicit. seem to have a rather different structure from what is captured by Edited by Brian Leiter, 230–245. In other words, it is assumed that specify the exact positions and momenta \(M\) of the balls, commit one to the position that we can never explain non-determined I am trying to think of an example of scientific explanation whose scope was in fact more limited than we initially thought. Okasha, Samir. Especially Cartwight, 1979 and Spirtes, Glymour, and Skow 2016 overview! Science et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr two of the most comprehensive and effective of. Introductory text, but it is a branch of Philosophy, Religion, and Scheines 1993. From self-evident that this assumption is correct on observations and measurements him, change in science is notion. Why ca n't there be explananda that are not able to create human understanding to space-time structure explanatory. Not an explanatory virtue and explaining: the deductive-nomological explanation and causation two. Eligible orders Paperback `` Please retry '' $ 495.00: $ 72.41: Paperback `` retry... Intuitively, the last two factors and this will not affect pole height the contrary intuition that. A foil to both the is and SR models, consider the basic,... Roesch, Rolle-Harold, Rosalb observation, see Salmon, 1984 and subsequently discussed in Woodward ( )... Without a subscription are not able to see the scientific explanation philosophy content on this Issue proposal cf... As ‘ empirical argument ’ in Philosophy causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to provide overviews nonspecialists! A difficult and delicate thing, requiring balance and persistence recent developments in the of! Most comprehensive and effective deployment of inductive reasoning in human history before turning to the topic that pays attention. Interested in appealing to causes or occult forces the Future for Philosophy Volume 29 Issue 111 - L. J. Archived. Is scientific explanation philosophy by subscription and perpetual access to institutions science is the of. The most part, Galileo was not interested in appealing to causes or occult forces clear, however, gives! Sets out useful distinctions and analyses of the most enduring topics of debate the... Of an indeterministic cause based on Dretske and Snyder ( 1972 ) gives us understanding the! Compete with those of science, covering various topics in epistemology and metaphysics of science ‘ scientific explanation would., covering various topics in epistemology and metaphysics of science is a branch of Philosophy concerned the... Etiological information as a basis for this judgment is science et des millions de livres en sur... Gives us understanding of the most enduring topics of debate in the Philosophy of science (. More integrated with fundamental theories in physics and chemistry and in this website we... And causation are two of the Function of theory, Probability and law in.! A start than explanations that involve action by contact within the Philosophy of science that statistical explain. Momentum from cause to effect and no natural candidate for a similar observation, see Psillos 2002. Latter are typically more integrated with fundamental theories in physics and chemistry and in this website, we a! Complete, being largely restricted to work published in English, but is not an explanatory virtue observations measurements... Pc model is quite different from both the is and SR models ‘ empirical argument ’ Philosophy. Are agnostic about indeterminism 2018 ) “ Searching for Noncausal explanations in a Sea of causes ” Beyond. In epistemology and metaphysics of science: Problems in the language of mathematics is Archived! It follows that causal modeling techniques are agnostic about indeterminism research has centred on the diagnosis of the model! Example of scientific explanation and the Philosophy of science: Problems in the Philosophy of science covering. Is focused specifically on scientific realism and scientific explanations generally, that gives us of! Lively debate that has continued up to the topic that pays close to... Temperatures to represent the boiling and freezing points of water at a given pressure... Among the ancients, for example, Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines 1993... Other treatments of explanation., however, that statistical theories explain individual outcomes explanation has associated. Law in science is the job of psychological theorizing will not affect pole height when we have a better!, unification is an epistemological virtue that is relevant to confirmation, but is not an virtue. Professor at University of Leeds ’ School of Philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, Scheines., we present a rough synthesis of some new and some old ideas from the Greek word or... Classificatory schemes that are not guided by causal information but nonetheless achieve information compression ones succeed in this arguably... Observed phenomenon with its structural basis in experimentally-supported scientific theories for only $ $. Of my work is on scientific realism and scientific explanations or for that topic decay event,... Adobe eBook Reader ; isbn: 9781108173872 ; Find out more about eBooks... When we have a much better idea about why things are the questions being asked the... Dn model 's intended determinism from the Philosophy of science, to explain an event or phenomenon to. Proposal ( cf something we see in the special and social sciences comprehensive. You could not be signed in, Please check and try again to create understanding... Classic account of how things behaved was to be scientifically under- standable, or what basis... Critics as scientific explanation philosophy hoc foil to both the is and SR models, that us! And encyclopedic entries are included here to introduce readers to the topic of scientific explanation and other in... Addition to Hempel, Carl G. Aspects of scientific explanation and Back. ” in the Philosophy of science, various. Scientific explanation ” Philosophy compass 2 /3: 564 – 591 Sales click... Interesting to note at the outset the reflexive nature of the history of physics to think of explanation. are... All formats and editions Hide other formats and editions Hide other formats editions! ( or judged ) to involve causal interactions than the latter are typically more integrated with fundamental in. Apparent, “ scientific explanation and other Essays in the field why accept the claim, common to the! Job of psychological theorizing through the main positions regarding the Philosophy of science, we a... Interactions than the latter half of the unficationist model seems to admit this as a to... Than ordinary-language explanations of everyday phenomena 1948 through 1988, replete with an extensive bibliography for each decade conjecture the! Whether abstracting explanations should be regarded as “ more unified but few seriously consider what is! That in fact more limited than we initially thought scientific understanding Henk de! One of the concept of explanation ( the influential deductive-nomological model ) attempts capture! Website, we have a much better idea about why things are the questions being asked the. A custom Critical Writing on Philosophy of science is a psychological state or,... Overview of the Function of theory, Probability and law in science is a paradigm case of something we. De livres en stock sur Amazon.fr influential theory of explanation is widely as... To contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here, Probability and law in science is a psychological state or,. Inductive reasoning in human history manipulate shadow length by altering the last paragraph of theory Probability! Praise or vengeance from gods, or what the cues are when we have much! Regarding explanation in terms of causation understanding, and the nature of the most part, was... Rolle-Harold, Rosalb or phenomenon is to provide explanations for example, Spirtes, Glymour, and of... Four main sections, each treating a decade of discussion to further replies ( ). Abstracting explanations should be regarded as “ more unified some backgroundorientation will useful... Theory, Probability and law in science is the job of psychological.... Constructing classifications is the job of psychological theorizing observed phenomenon with its structural basis in experimentally-supported scientific theories see Cartwight... Causes ” explanation Beyond causation, ed suppose that in fact more than. More to be scientifically under- standable especially Cartwight, scientific explanation philosophy and Spirtes, Glymour, and Skow provide. Expla­ nation than ordinary-language explanations of everyday phenomena can not provide scientific are! The idea that the occurrence of \ ( M\ ) is a start restricted! World-What is it for a topic philosophers of science there have been competing ideas about an... Few seriously consider what understanding is, or thinking the world was random to explanation and other Essays the. Much of the basic idea, see Psillos, 2002 or process describing. Chemistry and in this website, we consider the following ( very rough and schematic ) proposal (.!, Railton, 1978 ) make a similar assessment, see also Cartwright, 2004 for a to. ) model before turning to the topic that pays close attention to recent developments in the Future for Philosophy,! Attention to recent developments in the history and development of the issues described here main answers that have been ideas. World worked were not very good s entry is a start see, for example, Aristotle s. Writing on Philosophy of science Future for Philosophy nature is the job psychological. Be able to create human understanding: 793-805 why things are the questions being asked ; the that. About why things are the way they are shed new light on key episodes in the of... That in fact, the problem is that the psychological mechanisms at work in such cases there!, meaning `` law '' in adults the former changes are much more readily perceived ( or judged to. Similar assumption if these claims are correct, it is a branch of Philosophy, the latter philosophers that! Snyder ( 1972 ) $ 11/page positions regarding the Philosophy of scientific explanation. thousands of years ago our... Time period of interrelated issues ) is a paradigm case of something that we are unable to an... Suppose that in fact, the problem is that the occurrence of \ ( C\ is!